Celtic Soul 德魯伊 Druidry

文學中的凱爾特聖樹:謝默斯・悉尼的 The God in the Tree: Early Irish Nature Poetry

「樹」在凱爾特文化中佔了重要的地位。從信仰的角度,我們稱之「聖樹」,但從文學也可以看出,它們深入了民俗傳說和生活方式;從生態的角度,這些多數是土生土長富有地理意義的樹種。

最近接觸到諾貝爾文學獎得主謝默斯・悉尼的一篇散文,篇名即為:《The God in the Tree: Early Irish Nature Poetry》。其中收錄了許多以樹為題的詩,包括從愛爾蘭語翻成英文的詩。

像我這樣對德魯伊信仰有興趣的人們,多是從現代架構起來的凱爾特樹曆以及自然魔法等新世紀角度,回頭來尋找其文化根源。但當地人、早期的人,對聖樹與大自然文化實際上有什麼體認呢?這樣以文學及文化角度出發的文章,便特別吸引了我。其中一首,每段以一種樹為題,剛好符合這個理解架構:

The bush leafy oak tree
is highest in the wood,
the forking shooting hazel
has nests of hazel-nut.

The alder is my darling,
all thornless in the gap,
some milk fo human kindness
coursing in its sap.

The blackthorn is a jaggy creel
stippled with dark sloes,
green watercress is thatch on wells
where the drinking blackbird goes.

Sweetest of the leafy stalks,
the vetches strew the pathway,
the oyster-grass is my delight
and the wild strawberry.

Ever-generous apple-trees
rain big showers when shaken;
scarlet berries clot like blood
on mountain rowan.

Briars curl in sideways,
arch a stickle back,
draw blood, and curl up innocent
to sneak the next attack.

The yew tree in each churchyard
wraps night in its dark hood.
Ivy is a shadowy
genius of the wood.

Holly rears its windbreak,
a door in winter’s face;
life-blood on a spear-shaft
darkens the grain of ash.

Birch tree, smooth and blessed,
delicious to the breeze,
high twigs plait and crown it
the queen of trees.

The aspen pales
and whispers, hesitates;
a thousand frightened scuts
race in its leaves.

But what disturbs me
more than anything
is an oak rod, always
testing it thong.

「上榜」的十七種樹木草木,各有性格。因為信仰而認識的這些聖樹,屬於異國,對我而言是這麼陌生。因而從自然之美和土地認同寫出的詩意及觀察,與心靈的學習是這麼相輔相成。

謝莫斯接著列了許多對愛爾蘭自然大作文章的作家們,如Robin Flower、Kuno Meyer、K.H. Jackson、Gerard Murphy等等,不但研究愛爾蘭文學中的自然,更是研究愛爾蘭語中的自然,與古老的凱爾特文化連結又更貼近一些。

2 comments on “文學中的凱爾特聖樹:謝默斯・悉尼的 The God in the Tree: Early Irish Nature Poetry

  1. Many thanks! I like you idea about “nature/naturalness in language” [愛爾蘭語中的自然]. There is a lot to think about in that!

    • Thanks, Simon. Yes, thanks to the studies done by great writers – they’ve let us peek into languages two degrees away.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: